1 Introduction to the Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia. This chapter provides a short introduction to the topic of the book. I define. 7 Host Range of Daphnia Parasites. In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. I outline the ecological. 5 The Effects of Daphnia Parasites on Host Fitness. Parasites use their hosts to foster their own needs, thus interfering with the hosts’ survival and reproduction.

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Higher rates of mutation, recombination, and dispersal may facilitate local adaptation. By the time infected animals were collected, the ages of their infections were also different.

Every parasite has a host, but no parasite Parasite: Daphnia have been a workhorse for the study of phenotypic plasticity Phenotypic plasticity: A host is part of a host range if it can be infected by the parasite, even if the parasite does not do well in this host. Development of an organism from an unfertilized egg. Potential for coevolution and frequency-dependent selection.

To my knowledge, none of the described unicellular parasites of Daphnia has a known second host, although this option has been speculated Mangin et al. Locally adapted parasites usually show higher levels of damage and have higher levels of transmission stage production in their local hosts. It has been speculated that this specific pathology is adaptive for P. Conceptually, parasite and pathogen are the same.

Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia

In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. Usually used without units.


evklution Chapters 8 Epidemiology and 9 Population Dynamics and Community Ecology address aspects of parasitism at the population Population: To my knowledge, every experiment of this sort revealed some negative effect of the parasite on their Daphnia hosts. Ecol Lett7: Changes in allele frequencies over time. Migration among subpopulations is important for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a metapopulation.

Parasites may lower the ability of their hosts to escape predators Predator: The strength of this effect was shown to depend both on host clone and parasite isolate, with local parasite isolates having the strongest effect. In contrast to typical predators Predator: Genetic structure and local adaptation in natural insect populations: For the other parasites, no clear statement could be made.

Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia – NCBI Bookshelf

The costs of parasitism differ not only across parasite Parasite: This bacterium first castrates its host around 10 days after daphhia but then allows it to live for many more days ecklogy 40 days after infection. Most parasites are not viable outside of their hosts for extended periods not considering resting stages and therefore—from the parasite’s point of view—parasite and host form an inseparable biological unit.

See Diel vertical migration. Support Center Support Center. Organism exhibiting an obligatory, detrimental dependence on another organism its host. What I find more interesting than the fact that the parasite harms its host are questions daphnla the covariables of the degree of harm.


These features include their high abundance Abundance: Vertical transmission occurs when a parent conveys an infection to its unborn offspring, as in HIV in humans. Group of partially isolated populations belonging to the same species. I do not include epibionts in this book, because I feel that there is less need to discuss the epidemiology Epidemiology: Another environmental effect that influences the harm caused by parasites Parasite: Occurs when an adaptation in one species reduces the fitness of individuals in another species, thereby selecting in favor of counter-adaptations in the other species.

Print view The Book: For centuries, researchers studied Daphnia ecology not only for its key role as a primary consumer in the food chain of freshwater ponds and lakes but also as a model species for phenotypic plasticity Phenotypic plasticity: Epidemiol Infect The growing awareness that parasites are ubiquitous and may play an important role in most natural ecosystems has changed this, as the increasing number of publications about Daphnia parasites and epibionts confirms Figure 1.

This term is often used together with host range, such that a wide host range indicates a low specificity. Please send me an email: The potential effect that parasites Parasite: This chapter is short, however, because the parasites will be dealt with in detail in the second book.